Our Reports on Trading
and Market Structure

Digital Assets and Institutional Access: Workflows, Liquidity, and Execution Dynamics

January 2022

Digital assets adoption continued to advance in 2021. Developments included the growth of available products globally, large net inflows into crypto ETPs, and increasing institutional interest. To provide a resource for institutions exploring exposure, this paper builds on our earlier institutional thought piece and discusses several second-level considerations for trading digital assets, including ecosystem differences, logistical workflows, liquidity dynamics, and continuing risks.

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Digital Assets and Institutional Investors: Trends, Execution Considerations, and Challenges

February 2021

Institutional interest in crypto assets grew significantly during 2020, and in this piece we take a look at some of the major drivers, considerations, and challenges that defined this trend. In particular, we focus on execution considerations for trading crypto assets, and we summarize those factors that may be most relevant for institutions contemplating crypto assets exposure.

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Weighing the Benefits and Risks of ETF Custom Baskets

July 2020

With the Securities and Exchange Commission’s ETF Rule coming into effect in December 2020, many exchange traded funds will have the opportunity to use custom creation/redemption baskets for the first time. Custom baskets confer several advantages including the flexibility to use baskets of securities that fit both the fund’s portfolio management goals and the market maker’s inventories and trading interests. At the same time, custom baskets involve risks that must be carefully managed. In this report, we give a market maker’s view on the trade-offs presented by custom baskets for both fixed income and equity ETFs.

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ETF Creation/Redemption: A Primer

July 2020

As volatility churned higher in the first quarter, we received an influx of questions about the mechanics of ETF creation and redemption. In this primer, we highlight the differences between pro-rata, custom and cash creation/redemption, and give our perspective as a market maker on the strengths and weaknesses of each method.

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ETF Execution Strategies: A Guide for Institutional Traders

October 2019

The sheer variety of exchange-traded funds, and their unique liquidity and risk characteristics, have led traders to develop a variety of different execution strategies. Some of them tend to work better than others depending on the ETF and the circumstances of the trade. In this report, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the most popular ETF execution strategies, and how traders can use the size of the trade and their execution urgency to guide their decision about which strategy to use.

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Credit ETF Trading in Stressed Markets

July 2019

As assets in credit ETFs have grown, some market participants have asked whether credit ETFs might negatively impact trading in the underlying bonds in a stressed market environment. In this report, we share our views on this topic as an ETF market maker and bond dealer. We argue that while credit ETFs will become more costly to trade in a stressed market, they don’t pose a systemic risk to the credit markets.

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SEC Approves Changes to Limit Up-Limit Down Plan

April 4, 2017

In January, the SEC approved the Twelfth Amendment to the Limit Up-Limit Down plan, as well as a handful of separate rule filings that will further harmonize how the exchanges handle a LULD trading pause. The centerpiece of these changes is a new framework for the exchanges’ reopening auction collars. In this piece, we give some context around the Twelfth Amendment and illustrate how the new collars will work.

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Limit Up-Limit Down Plan Primer and Cheat Sheet

April 4, 2017

In this document, we explain the origins of LULD, catalogue some of the important events that have shaped its evolution, and opine on the various proposals to improve it. At the end, we illustrate how LULD works in a two-page cheat sheet.

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For questions or further information please contact institutional strategy at:

institutional-strategy@janestreet.com